Dharma Pearls

Translating Classical Buddhism to Modern English

The Medium Discourses

Chapter 7: King Dīrghāyu

72. The Legend of King Dīrghāyu

1. Thus have I heard:[1] One time, the Buddha traveled to Kauśāmbī and stayed at Ghoṣila Park.

2. At the time, the Kauśāmbī monks were having numerous quarrels with each other. The Bhagavān told the Kauśāmbī monks, “Monks, don’t quarrel with each other. Why is that?

The Legend of King Dīrghāyu

3. “Why is that? Once in the past, there was a king of Kośala named Dīrghāyu. There was also a king of Kāsi named Brahmadatta. Those two kings were constantly at war with each other.

4. “Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, raised a fourfold army of elephant troops, horse troops, chariot troops, and foot troops. Having raised a fourfold army, King Brahmadatta led his army, going to war with Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala.

5. “King Dīrghāyu heard, ‘Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, has raised a fourfold army. Having raised that fourfold army, he is coming to make war on us.’ After hearing this, King Dīrghāyu also raised a fourfold army. Having raised that fourfold army, King Dīrghāyu led his army to the border, arrayed them for battle, and then destroyed [Brahmadatta’s army].

6. “Thereupon, King Dīrghāyu captured that King Brahmadatta’s entire fourfold army. Moreover, he captured King Brahmadatta himself. After being captured, he was released. [Dīrghāyu] told him, ‘You’re an unfortunate man, so now I’ll give you amnesty. Don’t do this again.’

[533a] 7. “King Brahmadatta went on to raise a fourfold army three more times. After raising a fourfold army, he would lead his army to make war on King Dīrghāyu. King Dīrghāyu would hear, ‘Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, has once again raised a fourfold army. Having raised that fourfold army, he is coming to make war on us.’

8. “After hearing this [for a third time], King Dīrghāyu then thought, ‘I’ve already beaten him. What need is there to beat him again? I’ve already defeated him. What satisfaction would there be in defeating him again? I’ve already hurt him. What need is there to hurt him again? Only an empty bow is enough to defeat him.’

9. “After thinking this, it was clear as day to King Dīrghāyu, and he didn’t raise another fourfold army, nor did he leave. Thereupon, King Brahmadatta came and defeated him, capturing King Dīrghāyu’s entire fourfold army.

10. “King Dīrghāyu then heard, ‘Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, has captured our entire fourfold army.’

11. “Again, he thought, ‘How strange battle is! How evil battle is! Why is that? Those beaten go on to beat [others], those defeated go on to defeat [others], and those hurt go on to hurt [others]. Now, I’d rather just go alone with a single wife to the city of Bārāṇasī, riding with her in a single chariot.’

12. “King Dīrghāyu then went alone with a single wife, and they rode together in a single chariot to Bārāṇasī. King Dīrghāyu again thought, ‘Now, I’d rather go to the villages and towns where I could study and learn broadly.’ After thinking this, King Dīrghāyu then went to villages and towns, studying and learning broadly. He became known as ‘Dīrghāyu the Scholar’ because of his broad learning.

13. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar again thought, ‘I’ve learned what there was to learn. Now, I’d rather go to Bārāṇasī and stand on the streets and in the markets as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. Thus, after they listen to me, the well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī will be happier and amuse themselves.’ After thinking this, King Dīrghāyu went into Bārāṇasī and stood on the streets and in the markets as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. Thus, after they heard him, the well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī were happier and amused themselves.

14. “Thereupon, King Brahmadatta’s [533b] outer retinue heard of him, as did the middle retinue and inner retinue. The kingdom’s head priest in turn also heard of him. After hearing of him, the head priest then asked for a meeting.

15. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar visited the kingdom’s head priest and stood before him as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. After listening to him, the head priest was happier and amused himself. The head priest then told Dīrghāyu the scholar, ‘Starting today, you may make use of my home. We should support each other.’

16. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar said, ‘Venerable, I have a wife. What about her?’

“The head priest responded, ‘Scholar, you can tell her to come and make use of my family’s home. We’ll support her, too.’

17. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar then sent for his wife to make use of the head priest’s home, and the head priest supported them.

18. “Later, Dīrghāyu’s wife felt sad and thought, ‘The fourfold army will be arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. They’ll draw their autumn swords and march serenely by. I want to watch it all, and I also want to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades.’ After thinking this, Dīrghāyu’s wife then said to Dīrghāyu the Scholar, ‘I am feeling sad, and I’ve had this thought, “The fourfold army will be arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. They’ll draw their autumn swords and march serenely by. I want to watch it all, and I also want to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades.”’

19. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar then told his wife, ‘You shouldn’t think that. Why is that? We’ve been ruined by King Brahmadatta. What purpose is there in your seeing his fourfold army arrayed in formation with their armor and shields, drawing their autumn swords, and marching serenely by, or for you to want to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades?’

20. “His wife said, ‘Sir, if I can get this, I’ll have a chance to live. If I don’t get this, I’ll die for sure, without a doubt.’

21. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar then went to the kingdom’s head priest and stood before him. His countenance was downcast, and his voice was poor and slight as he entertained him. After listening, the head priest wasn’t happy.

22. “The head priest then asked, ‘Scholar, when you stood in front of me before, you were an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. After listening to you, I was happier and amused myself. Why do you stand in front of me now with a countenance that’s downcast and entertain me with a poor and slight voice? After listening to this, I’m not happier. Dīrghāyu the Scholar, are you not feeling ill or mentally troubled?’

23. “Dīrghāyu the Scholar said, ‘Sir, it’s not that I’m feeling ill. It’s just that I’m [533c] mentally troubled. Sir, my wife is sad and has this thought, “The fourfold army will be arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. They’ll draw their autumn swords and march serenely by. I want to watch it all, and I also want to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades.”

24. “‘I then replied to my wife, “You shouldn’t think that. Why is that? We are here now. What purpose is there in your watching the fourfold army arrayed in formation with their armor and shields, drawing their autumn swords, and marching serenely by, or for you to want to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades?”

25. “‘My wife again said to me, “Sir, if I can get this, I’ll have a chance to live. If I don’t get this, I’ll die for sure, without a doubt.” Sir, if my wife doesn’t survive, I won’t have a reason [to live], either.’

26. “The head priest asked, ‘Scholar, your wife can watch them, can’t she?’

“He replied, ‘Sir, she can only watch.’

27. “The head priest then led Dīrghāyu the Scholar to his wife. At that point, Dīrghāyu the scholar’s wife was pregnant with a virtuous child. Because he saw that Dīrghāyu’s wife was pregnant with a virtuous child, the head priest knelt on his right knee and faced Dīrghāyu’s wife with his palms together. He proclaimed three times, ‘Born of the Kośala king, born of the Kośala king!’ He then instructed [everyone] to the left and right, ‘Now, don’t let anyone else know!’

28. “The head priest then told him, ‘Scholar, you mustn’t be sad. I can make it possible for your wife to see the fourfold army arrayed in formation with their armor and shields, draw their autumn swords, and march serenely by, and she’ll be able to drink the water from the sharpening of their blades.’

29. “The head priest then went to Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi. When he arrived, he said, ‘Heavenly king, you should know that a virtuous star has appeared. If it pleases the heavenly king, let the fourfold army be adorned and arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. Let them draw their autumn swords and direct the to march serenely. Let that shining army so dignified sharpen their blades with water. If it pleases the heavenly king, he could go out and watch them himself. Heavenly king, if this were done, it would surely bring good fortune.’

30. “King Brahmadatta then ordered his chief military minister, ‘Minister, you should know now that a virtuous star has appeared. It would be fitting for you to order the fourfold army to be adorned and arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. Have them draw their autumn swords, direct them to march serenely. Let that shining army so dignified sharpen their blades with water. I will come out to watch them myself. If this were done, it would surely bring good fortune.’

31. “The chief military minister then accepted the king’s instructions. The fourfold army was adorned and arrayed in formation with their armor and shields. They drew their autumn swords and were directed to march serenely. That shining army so dignified sharpened their blades with water, and Brahmadatta then went out to watch them himself.

32. “As a result of this, Dīrghāyu the scholar’s wife was able to see the fourfold army arrayed in formation [534a] with their armor and shields, draw their autumn swords, and be directed to march serenely. That shining army so dignified. She also was able to drink water from the sharpening of their blades. After drinking the blade-sharpening water, her sadness was dispelled. She gave birth to a virtuous son, and they named him Prince Dīrghajāti. They entrusted him to someone to be raised in secret.

33. “After he grew up, if he had been among the aristocratic kings born from the crown, Prince Dīrghajāti would have governed the world under heaven and obtained a great empire. His various skills included elephant riding, horseback riding, driving, galloping, archery, boxing, net throwing, hook throwing, chariot riding, and sitting in a palanquin. Such various and marvelous skills were all known to him. Whatever kind of subject it was, his wondrous understand of it was extraordinary. He determined to surpass the world, and his intelligence was outstanding, subtle, and profound. There wasn’t anything he couldn’t comprehend.

34. “Brahmadatta then heard that Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala, had become a scholar, changed his name, and was living in Bārāṇasī. Brahmadatta ordered [everyone] left and right, ‘Quickly, all of you, go and collect King Dīrghāyu. Bind both his hands and make him run while beating a broken drum that sounds like a donkey braying. After you’ve gone everywhere [in the city], take him outside the city’s south gate and make him sit under a tall sign that questions his abdication.’

35. “[Everyone] left and right accepted his instructions. They then went and collected King Dīrghāyu, bound both his hands, and made him run while beating a broken drum that sounded like a donkey braying. After they’d been everywhere, they took him outside the city’s south gate and made him sit beneath a tall sign that questioned his abdication.

36. “Prince Dīrghajāti hurried to follow after his father. Sometimes while among [everyone] left and right, he said to his father, ‘Fear not, heavenly king! Fear not, heavenly king! I am here! Surely, I can save you! Surely, I can save you!’

“King Dīrghāyu told him, ‘Be tolerant, Prince! Be tolerant! Don’t bind yourself with hate! Only act with kindness!’

37. “Hearing this, the crowd asked King Dīrghāyu, ‘What sort of principle is that?’

“The king answered the crowd, ‘This prince is intelligent. He’s sure to understand my words.’

38. “It was then that Prince Dīrghajāti implored the well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī, ‘Gentlemen, practice generosity and cultivate merit in order to chant this invocation for Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala: ‘With this gift of merit, may King Dīrghāyu be granted well-being and gain his freedom!’

39. “The well-to-do families in Bārāṇasī who were implored by Prince Dīrghajāti then practiced generosity and cultivated merit in order to chant this invocation for Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala: ‘With this gift of merit, may King Dīrghāyu be granted well-being and gain his freedom!’

40. “King Brahmadatta heard, ‘The well-to-do families in Bārāṇasī are practicing generosity and cultivating merit in order to chant this invocation for Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala: [534b] ‘With this gift of merit, may King Dīrghāyu be granted well-being and gain his freedom!’

41. “Hearing this, he was so frightened that his hair stood on end. ‘I can’t allow these well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī turn against me! If that’s the case, it would be fitting that I act swiftly and put an end to this before [they do].’ King Brahmadatta thereupon ordered [everyone] left and right, ‘Quickly! Go kill Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala, and chop him into seven pieces.’ [Everyone] left and right accepted his instructions. They went quickly, killed King Dīrghāyu, and chopped him into seven pieces.

42. “Prince Dīrghajāti thereupon implored the well-to-do families in Bārāṇasī, ‘Gentlemen, look at this! Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, is violent and unprincipled! He took my father Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala, who was an innocent man. He captured his kingdom, storehouses, and treasures and killed him with hateful cruelty. He was chopped into seven pieces!

43. “‘Gentlemen, please go and collect my father with a fresh cotton cloth and gather up the seven pieces of his corpse; make a pile of wood, all incense and fragrant wood, and cremate him. Then go stand in the king’s court and read this statement that I will write. Tell Brahmadatta, ‘The king of Kośala is Prince Dīrghajāti. He has made this statement: “Aren’t you afraid of the future troubles that the descendants [of Dīrghāyu] will cause you?”’

44. “The well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī then did as they were asked by Prince Dīrghajāti. They collected the seven pieces of [the king’s] body with a fresh cotton cloth, made a pile of fragrant wood, and cremated him. They went and stood in the court, reading the statement to Brahmadatta that said, ‘The king of Kośala is Prince Dīrghajāti. He has made this statement: “Aren’t you afraid of the future troubles that [the king’s] descendants will cause you?”’

45. “King Dīrghāyu’s wife then told Prince Dīrghajāti, ‘You should know that this Brahmadatta, the king of Kāsi, is violent and unprincipled. He took your father Dīrghāyu, the king of Kośala, who was an innocent man. He captured his kingdom, storehouses, and treasures and killed him with hateful cruelty. He was chopped into seven pieces! Prince, come! Together we’ll ride in a single chariot and flee from Bārāṇasī. If you don’t leave, disaster will befall you.’ King Dīrghāyu’s wife and Prince Dīrghajāti then fled from Bārāṇasī riding in a single cart.

46. “It was then that Prince Dīrghajāti had this thought, ‘I would rather go to villages and towns to study and learned broadly.’ After thinking this, Prince Dīrghajāti traveled to villages and towns, studying and learning broadly. Because he became widely learned, he changed his name to Dīrghajāti the Scholar.

47. “Dīrghajāti the Scholar again [534c] had this thought, ‘I’ve learned what there was to learn. I would rather go to Bārāṇasī and stand on the streets and in the markets as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. After listening to me, the well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī will be happier and amuse themselves.’ After thinking this, Dīrghajāti the Scholar then went to Bārāṇasī and stood on the streets and in the markets as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. After they thus heard him, the well-to-do families of Bārāṇasī were happier and amused themselves.

48. “Thereupon, King Brahmadatta’s outer retinue heard of him, as did his middle retinue and inner retinue. The kingdom’s head priest heard of him, as did King Brahmadatta in his turn. He then asked for a meeting.

49. “Dīrghajāti the Scholar then went to visit King Brahmadatta and stood before him as an entertainer with a cheerful countenance. After listening to him, King Brahmadatta was happier and amused himself. King Brahmadatta then told him, ‘Scholar, starting today, you can make use of my home. We will support each other.’

50. “Dīrghajāti the Scholar then made use of his home, and King Brahmadatta supported him. Later, he sought [the king’s] trust, and he was made a [royal] guard. A sword was given to the Dīrghajāti the Scholar.

51. “It was then that King Brahmadatta ordered his driver, ‘Can you prepare a horse carriage? I want to go out for a hunt.’ The driver accepted his instruction, immediately prepared a horse carriage, and returned when he was done. He said, ‘The horse carriage is ready. The heavenly king may do as he likes.’

52. “King Brahmadatta and Dīrghajāti the Scholar then rode out in the carriage together. Dīrghajāti the Scholar then had the thought, ‘This King Brahmadatta is violent and unprincipled. He took my father Dīrghāyu, the King of Kośala, who was an innocent man. He captured his kingdom, storehouses, and treasures and killed him with hateful cruelty. He was chopped into seven pieces! Now, I’d rather steer the carriage to leave the fourfold army behind in different places.’ After thinking this, Dīrghajāti the Scholar then steered the carriage, leaving the fourfold army behind so that each was in a different place.

53. “At that point, King Brahmadatta brashly walked along a muddy road. Oppressed by the wind and heat, he felt pained and thirsty. Exhausted, he wanted to lie down, so he did under the carriage. Using Dīrghajāti the Scholar’s knees as a pillow, he fell asleep.

54. “Dīrghajāti the Scholar then had this thought, ‘This King Brahmadatta is violent and unprincipled. He took my father who was an innocent man. He captured his kingdom, storehouses, and treasures and killed him with hateful cruelty. He was chopped into seven pieces! [535a] But on this day, it’s in my hands. It’s up to me to repay him for his hate.’ After thinking this, Dīrghajāti the Scholar drew his sharp sword and placed it on King Brahmadatta’s neck. He said, ‘Now I will kill you! Now I will kill you!’

55. “Dīrghajāti the Scholar again thought, ‘I will not do this. Why is that? I remember that day when my father was under the sign, and the end was near. He said to me, ‘Be tolerant, Prince! Be tolerant! Don’t bind yourself with hate! Only act with kindness!’ After remembering this, he lifted his sword and put it back in its sheath.

56. “King Brahmadatta was then dreaming, and he saw King Dīrghāyu’s son Prince Dīrghajāti holding a drawn sword to his neck, saying, ‘Now I will kill you! Now I will kill you!’ After seeing this, he was so terrified that his hair stood on end. He woke up suddenly and said to Dīrghajāti the scholar, ‘Now, you should know that in a dream I saw King Dīrghāyu’s son Prince Dīrghajāti holding a drawn sword to my neck, saying, “Now I will kill you! Now I will kill you!”’

57. “After hearing this, Dīrghajāti the Scholar said, ‘Don’t be afraid, heavenly king! Don’t be afraid! Why is that? I am that King Dīrghāyu’s son Prince Dīrghajāti. Heavenly king, I had the thought, “This King Brahmadatta is violent and unprincipled. He took my father who was an innocent man. He captured his kingdom, storehouses, and treasures and killed him with hateful cruelty. He was chopped into seven pieces! But on this day, it’s in my hands. It’s up to me to repay him for his hate.” Heavenly king, I drew my sword, put it on your neck, and said, “Now I will kill you! Now I will kill you!” But, heavenly king, I again thought, “I will not do this. Why is that? I remember that day when my father was under the sign, and the end was near. He said to me, ‘Be tolerant, Prince! Be tolerant! Don’t bind yourself with hate! Only act with kindness!” After remembering that, I lifted my sword and put it back in its sheath.’

58. “King Brahmadatta said, ‘Prince, you’ve said, “Be tolerant, Prince. Be tolerant.” I understand the meaning of that. but you also said, “Don’t bind yourself with hate. Act only with kindness.” What does that mean?’

59. “Dīrghajāti the prince answered, ‘Heavenly king, don’t bind yourself with hate and act only with kindness means precisely this.’

60. “After hearing that, King Brahmadatta said, ‘Prince, starting today, my rule of [your] kingdom will end with our conversation. Your father’s former kingdom will be restored and entrusted to you. Why is that? You’ve done what’s very difficult to do: You spared my life.’

[535b] 61. “After hearing this, Prince Dīrghajāti said, ‘The heavenly king’s former kingdom is under the control of the king. I can return to my father’s former kingdom.’

62. “King Brahmadatta and Prince Dīrghajāti then rode back to Bārāṇasī together. Seated in the main palace, [Brahmadatta] addressed his ministers, ‘If any of you see the Kośala king’s son Prince Dīrghajāti, what will you do?’

63. “When they heard this, some ministers said, ‘Heavenly king, if we see him, we’ll lop off his hands.’ Others replied, ‘Heavenly king, if we see him, we’ll cut off his feet.’ Still others said, ‘We’ll end his life.’

64. “King Brahmadatta told the ministers, ‘You can look upon the Kośala king Dīrghāyu’s son Prince Dīrghajāti, for he is right here. Don’t harbor evil intent towards this prince. Why is that? This prince has done what’s very difficult to do: He spared my life.’

65. “Thereupon, King Brahmadatta used the royal bath to bathe Prince Dīrghajāti, anointed him with royal incense, and dressed him in royal clothes. He directed that he ride on a golden chariot seat and returned him to his former kingdom with his [father’s] wife.

The Kauśāmbī Monks

66. “Monks, those kings were aristocratic kings born from the crown and the lords of great kingdoms. Ruling the world under heaven, their own actions were tolerant, and they praised tolerance. Their own actions were kind, and they praised kindness. Their own actions were merciful, and they praised mercy.

67. “Monks, you should be likewise. Attaining faith, renouncing home, being homeless, and training on the path, you should act tolerantly and praise tolerance. Your own actions being kind, praise kindness, too. Your own actions being merciful, praise mercy, too.”

68. The monks who heard what the Buddha taught had this to say, “The Bhagavān is the Dharma lord. Now, it would be fitting for him to stay. The other [monks] instruct us, so how are we not to instruct them?”

69. The Bhagavān was not pleased with the Kauśāmbī monks’ deportment, reverence, training, and practice. He then rose from his seat and spoke these verses:

Visiting Venerable Bhagu

70. After speaking these verses, the Bhagavān then used his supernormal abilities to levitate away. He went to the village of [Bālakaloṇakāra], and the Venerable Bhagu of the Śākya clan was there in [Bālakaloṇakāra]. He didn’t sleep day and night, diligently practicing the path. He was resolved to practice continuous concentration and abided in the factors of the path. Seeing the Buddha coming from afar, that venerable of the Śākya clan went to meet him after seeing him. He took the Buddha’s robe and bowl, prepared a seat for the Buddha, and fetched water for washing his feet. After washing his feet, the Buddha sat on the Venerable Śākyan Bhagu’s seat. After sitting, he asked, “Monk Bhagu, have you been doing well? Do you need anything?”

The venerable of the Śākya clan Bhagu said, “Bhagavān, I’m doing well. There isn’t anything that I need.”

71. The Bhagavān again asked, “Monk Bhagu, how is it that you are doing well and don’t need anything?”

Venerable Bhagu said, “Bhagavān, I don’t sleep day and night, diligently practicing the path. I’m resolved to practice continuous concentration and abide in the factors of the path. Bhagavān, this is how I’m doing well and don’t have anything I need.”

72. The Bhagavān thought, “This clansman wanders in contentment. Now, I’d like to teach Dharma for him.” After thinking this, he then taught the Dharma [536a] for Venerable Bhagu. He encouraged, roused, and made him rejoice, teaching the Dharma for him with measureless methods.

The Solitary Elephant

73. After encouraging, rousing, and making him rejoice, [the Bhagavān] rose from his seat and went to a protected temple grove. Entering that protected temple grove, he went to a tree, spread out his sitting mat under it, and sat down cross-legged.

74. The Bhagavān thought, “I’ve freed myself from the repeated quarreling of those of Kauśāmbī monks, subduing each other, disliking each other, and angrily disputing with each other. I’m displeased just thinking in that direction, that living place of the Kauśāmbī monks.”

75. At that moment, there was a great elephant who was the king of an elephant herd. He parted with the herd and went wandering alone. He also went to that protected temple grove. Entering the protected temple grove, he came upon the worthy’s sal tree and stood near that rare worthy’s sal tree.

76. It was then that the great elephant thought, “I’ve freed myself from that herd of elephants, those cows, bulls, and young elephants large and small. Those walking at the front of that herd of elephants trample the grass and muddy the water, and then I eat that trampled grass and drink that muddied water. Now, I can eat and drink fresh grass and clean water!”

77. The Bhagavān then knew that thought in this great elephant’s mind using his knowledge of other minds, and he spoke this verse:

78. The Bhagavān then gathered up his robe and bowl from the protected temple grove and went to the [Pācīnavaṃsa] temple grove.

Visiting Aniruddha, Nandika, and Kimbila

79. At the time, the [Pācīnavaṃsa] temple grove had three clansmen living in it: Venerable Aniruddha, Venerable Nandika, and Venerable Kimbila. Those venerables there were practicing thus: If they solicited food, the one who returned first then prepared seats, and he fetched the water and foot-washing basin. He calmly washed his feet and wiped down his legs with a cloth. He then rinsed out the water jug. If he could eat all the food he solicited, then he ate it all. If some was leftover, he put it in a covered container and set it up high. When the meal was finished, he collected his bowl, washed his hands and feet, and put his sitting mat over his shoulder. He then entered his dwelling to sit quietly.

80. If they solicit alms, the last one to return ate all his food if he could. If it wasn’t enough, he took from the leftover food to have enough to eat. If some was leftover, then he dumped it on clean ground or in water lacking living things. He then took the others’ food containers and put them to one side after cleaning and wiping them. He rolled up his sitting mat, washed his feet, wiped his legs with a cloth, and put away the foot-washing basin. He also rinsed out the water jug and [536b] swept the dining room. After throwing out the refuse and cleaning, he collected his robes and bowl, washed his hands and feet, put his sitting mat over his shoulder, and entered his dwelling to sit quietly.

81. Those venerables would [remain in their dwellings] until late afternoon. If the first one to emerge from his quiet sitting saw the water jug or the wash basin was empty, then he picked it up. If another was more able, then he would point it out when they came along and set it safely to one side. If another wasn’t more able, then one monk picked them up, or two people lifted them together, and put them to one side. They didn’t say anything to each other nor asking questions [while doing that]. Those venerables would have a meeting every five days. Sometimes they would discuss the Dharma, and other times they would be nobly silent.

82. Thereupon, the warden of the grove saw the Bhagavān approaching from afar, and he told him to stop. “Ascetic! Ascetic! Don’t enter this grove! Why is that? In this grove are three clansmen, Venerable Aniruddha, Venerable Nandika, and Venerable Kimbila. If they see you, they may forbid [you to be here].”

83. The Bhagavān told him, “You, warden of the grove! If they see me, they surely will allow [me to be here]. None of them will forbid it.”

84. Venerable Aniruddha then saw the Bhagavān approaching from afar and called, “You, warden of the grove! Don’t warn off the Bhagavān! You, warden of the grove! Don’t stop the Sugata! Why is that? This is our worthy approaching! Our Sugata is approaching!”

85. Venerable Aniruddha went out and met the Bhagavān, taking the Buddha’s robe and bowl. Venerable Nandika prepared a seat for the Buddha, and venerable Kimbila fetched water for the Buddha.

86. It was then that after washing his hands and feet and taking the seat that was prepared for him, the Bhagavān asked, “Aniruddha, have you been doing well? Do you need anything?”

Venerable Aniruddha said, “Bhagavān, I am doing well. There isn’t anything that I need.”

87. The Bhagavān again asked Aniruddha, “How is it you are doing well and don’t need anything?”

88. Venerable Aniruddha said, “Bhagavān, I have thought, ‘I am well blessed with great virtues. That is, I’m practicing together with such practitioners of the religious life.’ Bhagavān, towards these practitioners of the religious life, I always act physically with kindness. Whether seen or unseen, [I do so] equally and without difference. I act verbally with kindness and act mentally with kindness. Whether seen or unseen, [I do so] equally without difference.

89. “Bhagavān, I also think, ‘Now, I’d rather abandon my own thought and follow the thoughts of those noble ones.’ Bhagavān, I then abandon my own thought and follow the thoughts of those noble ones. Bhagavān, there’s never been a single thought I didn’t allow. Bhagavān, thus am I doing well and don’t have anything that I need.”

90. When venerable Nandika was asked, his answer was likewise.

91. Again, he asked venerable Kimbila, “Have you been doing well? Do you need anything?”

Venerable Kimbila [536c] said, “Bhagavān, I am doing well. There isn’t anything that I need.”

92. He asked, “Kimbila, how is it you are doing well and don’t need anything?”

93. Venerable Kimbila said, “Bhagavān, I have thought, ‘I am well blessed with great virtues. That is, I’m practicing together with such practitioners of the religious life.’ Bhagavān, towards these practitioners of the religious life, I always act physically with kindness. Whether seen or unseen, [I do so] equally and without difference. I act verbally with kindness and act mentally with kindness. Whether seen or unseen, [I do so] equally without difference.

94. “Bhagavān, I also think, ‘Now, I’d rather abandon my own thought and follow the thoughts of those noble ones.’ Bhagavān, I then abandon my own thought and follow the thoughts of those noble ones. Bhagavān, there’s never been a single thought I didn’t allow. Bhagavān, thus am I doing well and don’t have anything that I need.”

95. The Bhagavān praised them. “Good, good! Aniruddha, all of you are thus always unified together, contented without disputes, single in mind and single in teacher, and joined as one like water or milk. But have you attained the state of the superior man and a distinct and contented dwelling?”

96. Venerable Aniruddha said, “Bhagavān, we are thus always united together, contented without disputes, single in mind and single in teacher, and joined as one like water or milk. We’ve attained the state of the superior man and have a distinct and contented dwelling. Bhagavān, we apprehend light and then see forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappears again.”

97. The Bhagavān told him, “Aniruddha, none of you have comprehended these signs, which is to say the signs of apprehending light and seeing forms, and so that vision of forms and light soon disappears again.

98. “Aniruddha, when I hadn’t yet awakened to the unsurpassed and true enlightenment, I also apprehended light and saw forms, and that vision of forms and light would soon disappear again.

1. Doubt

99. “Aniruddha, I had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

100. “Aniruddha, I practiced diligently and without indolence. Personally dwelling in possession of right mindfulness and right knowledge without any delusions, I attained a concentrated and unified mind. Aniruddha, I then thought, ‘I’ve practiced diligently and without indolence. Personally dwelling in possession of right mindfulness and right knowledge without any delusions, I’ve attained a concentrated and unified mind. If there were no enlightenment in the world, would that be visible and knowable to me?’

101. “This disturbance of doubt arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of doubt, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension [537a] of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.

102. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce this disturbance, I lived alone far away from it, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from it, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

2. Unmindfulness

103. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

104. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of unmindfulness arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of unmindfulness, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

105. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise and the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

3. Perceiving Physical Illness

106. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

107. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of perceiving physical illness arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of perceiving physical illness, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

108. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

4. Drowsiness

109. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light [537b] and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

110. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of drowsiness arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of drowsiness, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

111. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

5. Excessive Diligence

112. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

113. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of excessive diligence arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of excessive diligence, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

114. “Aniruddha, it was like a strong man grabbing a fly too fast. The fly is immediately killed. So it was, Aniruddha, when that disturbance of excessive diligence arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of excessive diligence, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.

115. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

6. Excessive Indolence

116. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

117. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of excessive indolence arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of excessive indolence, [537c] I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

118. “Aniruddha, it was like a strong man who grabs a fly too slow. The fly immediately flies away. Aniruddha, the disturbance of excessive indolence arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of excessive indolence, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.

119. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

7. Fear

120. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

121. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of fear arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of fear, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

122. “Aniruddha, it was like someone traveling on a road comes to a crossroad where bandits are waiting. Seeing them, that person is so terrified and fearful that their hair stands on end. So it was, Aniruddha, when that disturbance of fear arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of fear, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.

123. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of fear doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

8. Elation

124. “Aniruddha, I again had [538a] the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

125. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of elation arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of elation, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

126. “Aniruddha, it was like someone searching for a hidden treasure and suddenly finds four hidden treasures. Seeing them, that person immediately feels joy and happiness. So it was, Aniruddha, when that disturbance of elation arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of elation, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.

127. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of fear doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of elation doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

9. Self-Conceited Thoughts

128. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

129. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of self-conceited thoughts arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of self-conceited thoughts, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

130. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of fear doesn’t arise, the disturbance of elation doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of self-conceited thoughts doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily [538b] apprehended light and saw forms. That vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

10. Numerous Perceptions

131. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

132. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of numerous perceptions arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of numerous perceptions, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

133. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of fear doesn’t arise, the disturbance of elation doesn’t arise, the disturbance of self-conceited thoughts doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of numerous perceptions doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms, but that vision of forms and light soon disappeared again.

11. Not Observing Forms

134. “Aniruddha, I again had the thought, ‘What disturbance in my mind causes me to lose concentration and dispels vision? After my vision is dispelled, so is my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappears.’

135. “Aniruddha, I also thought, ‘The disturbance of not observing forms arose in my mind. As a result of this disturbance of not observing forms, I immediately lost concentration, and my vision was dispelled. After my vision was dispelled, so was my original apprehension of light and vision of forms, and that vision of forms and light soon disappeared.’

136. “Aniruddha, now I necessarily think, ‘In my mind, the disturbance of doubt doesn’t arise, the disturbance of unmindfulness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of perceiving physical illness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of drowsiness doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive diligence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of excessive indolence doesn’t arise, the disturbance of fear doesn’t arise, the disturbance of elation doesn’t arise, the disturbance of self-conceited thoughts doesn’t arise, the disturbance of numerous perceptions doesn’t arise, and the disturbance of not observing forms doesn’t arise.’ Aniruddha, wanting to not produce these disturbances, I lived alone far away from them, my mind was without carelessness, and I cultivated diligence. As a result of living alone far away from them, my mind being without carelessness, and cultivating diligence, I readily apprehended light and saw forms.

137. “Aniruddha, if my mind gave rise to the disturbance of doubt, my mind was purified of that. Regarding the disturbances of unmindfulness, [538c] perceiving physical illness, drowsiness, excessive diligence, excessive indolence, fear, elation, conceited thoughts, numerous perceptions, and not observing forms, my mind was purified of them.

The Three Concentrations
1. Concentration with Perception and Contemplation

138. “Aniruddha, I again thought, ‘I will cultivate three concentrations: I’ll cultivate the concentration with perception and contemplation, cultivate the concentration with no perception and some contemplation, and cultivate the concentration without perception or contemplation.’

139. “Aniruddha, I then cultivated the three concentrations, cultivating the concentration with perception and contemplation, cultivating the concentration with no perception and some contemplation, and cultivating the concentration without perception or contemplation. If I cultivated the concentration with perception and contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration with no perception and some contemplation. Thus, I surely wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

140. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated the concentration with perception and contemplation all day, all night, and all day and night.

141. “Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way. If I cultivated the concentration with perception and contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration without perception or contemplation. Thus, I surely wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

142. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated the concentration with perception and contemplation all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

2. Concentration with No Perception and Some Contemplation

143. “Aniruddha if I cultivated the concentration with no perception and some contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration with perception and contemplation. Thus, I surely wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

144. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated the concentration with no perception and some contemplation all day, all night, and all day and night.

145. “Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way. If I cultivated concentration with no perception and some contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration without perception or contemplation. Thus, I surely wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

146. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated the concentration with no perception and some contemplation all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

3. Concentration Without Perception or Contemplation

147. “Aniruddha, if I cultivated the concentration without perception or contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration with perception and contemplation. Thus, I surely wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

148. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated the concentration without perception or contemplation all day, all night, and all day and night.

149. “Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way. If I cultivated concentration without perception or contemplation, my mind would be liable to turn to the concentration with no perception and some contemplation. Thus, I wouldn’t lose this knowledge and vision.

150. “Aniruddha, after knowing it thus, I cultivated concentration without perception or contemplation all day, all night, and [539a] all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

The Signs of Light and Forms

151. “Aniruddha, there was a time I perceived light but didn’t see forms. Aniruddha, I thought, ‘What’s the cause and what’s the condition for perceiving light but not seeing forms?’

152. “Aniruddha, I again thought, ‘If I’m mindful of the sign of light and not mindful of the sign of forms, then at that point I perceive light but don’t see forms.’ Aniruddha, thus knowing it, I perceived light but didn’t see forms all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

153. “Aniruddha, sometimes I saw forms but didn’t perceive light. Aniruddha, I thought, ‘What’s the cause and what’s the condition for seeing forms but not perceiving light?’

154. “Aniruddha, I again thought, ‘If I’m mindful of the sign of forms and not mindful of the sign of light, then at that point I perceive forms but don’t perceive light.’ Aniruddha, thus knowing it, I perceived form but didn’t perceive light all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

155. “Aniruddha, there were times I perceived a little light and saw a few forms. Aniruddha, I thought, ‘What’s the cause and what’s the condition for perceiving a little light and seeing a few forms?’

156. “Aniruddha, I again thought, ‘If I enter concentration a little, then because of entering concentration a little my vision is purified a little. Because my vision is purified a little, then I perceive a little light and see a few forms.’ Aniruddha, knowing it thus, I perceived a little light and saw a few forms all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

157. “Aniruddha, there were times when I perceived extensive light and saw extensive forms. Aniruddha, I then thought, ‘What’s the cause and what’s the condition for perceiving extensive light and seeing extensive forms?’

158. “Aniruddha, I again thought, ‘If I enter concentration extensively, then because of entering concentration extensively, my vision is extensively purified. Because my vision is extensively purified, then I perceive extensive light and see extensive forms.’ Aniruddha, knowing it thus, I perceived extensive light and saw extensive forms all day, all night, and all day and night. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.

Conclusion

159. “Aniruddha, if the disturbance of doubt arose in my mind, my mind was purified of that. [If] the disturbances of unmindfulness, perceiving physical illness, drowsiness, excessive diligence, [539b] excessive indolence, fear, elation, conceited thoughts, the arising of numerous perceptions, and the thought of not observing forms [arose in my mind], my mind was purified of them. I fully cultivated the concentration with perception and contemplation, fully cultivated the concentration with no perception and some contemplation, and fully cultivated the concentration without perception or contemplation. I fully cultivated one-pointed concentration, fully cultivated mixed concentration, fully cultivated a little concentration, and fully cultivated extensive and measureless concentration.

160. “I gave rise to knowing and seeing a full and bright purity, headed for a certain abode, and diligently cultivated the factors of the path. Birth was ended, the religious practice was established, and the task was accomplished. I was no longer subject to existence and knew it as it really was. Aniruddha, at that point I practiced in this way.”

161. The Buddha spoke thus. When Venerable Aniruddha, Venerable Nandika, and Venerable Kimbila heard what the Buddha taught, they rejoiced and approved.

Notes

  1. Parallels include MN 128, Theravāda Vinaya, Khandhaka 10, and EA 24.8. [Back]

Translator: Charles Patton

Last Revised: 14 September 2020