Translating Classical Buddhism to Modern English

The Long Discourses

28. [Poṭṭhapāda]

1. Thus I have heard:[1] One time, the Buddha was staying at Anāthapiṇḍada’s Park of Śrāvastī. He was accompanied by a large assembly of 1,250 monks.

2. At sunrise, the Buddha put on his robe and took his bowl into Śrāvastī to solicit alms. The Bhagavān thought, “It’s too early to solicit today’s alms. I’d better go see [Poṭṭhapāda][2] in the wanderers’ grove. I’ll solicit alms later when it’s the right time.” The Bhagavān then went to the wanderers’ grove.

3. The wanderer [Poṭṭhapāda] saw the Buddha coming from a distance and got up to greet him. “Welcome, ascetic Gautama! It’s been a long time! What brings you here today? You can prepare a seat in the front.”

4. The Bhagavān then prepared his seat, asking [Poṭṭhapāda], “When you have meetings here, what do you do? What do you discuss?”

5. The wanderer told the Buddha, “Bhagavān, yesterday, there was a meeting of wanderers, ascetics, and priests at the priest’s meeting all. They discussed this subject with contradictory theories.

6.\ “Gautama, sometimes a wanderer would say, ‘A person’s conceptions arise without cause or condition, and they cease without cause or condition.’

7. “Gautama, sometimes a wanderer would say, ‘It’s because of the soul that conceptions arise, and they cease when it departs.’

8. “Gautama, sometimes a wanderer would say, ‘What was said before isn’t possible. There’s a great demon spirit who possesses great power. It takes conceptions away and brings conceptions with it. When it takes them away, one’s conceptions cease. When it brings them, one’s conceptions arise.’

9. “A thought occurred to me because of this. I thought, ‘The ascetic Gautama surely knows about this subject. Surely, he would know conceptions well and know about the attainment of cessation.’”

10. The Bhagavān then told the wanderer, “Those theories have their defects. They say, ‘Conceptions arise without cause or condition and cease without cause or condition. Conceptions come and go. When they arrive, conceptions arise. When they depart, conceptions cease.’

11. “Sometimes, they say, ‘The soul is the cause of conceptions arising and the cause for them to cease. Conceptions come and go. When they arrive, conceptions arise. When they depart, conceptions cease.’

12. “Sometimes, they say, ‘That’s impossible. There’s a great demon spirit. It takes conceptions away and brings conceptions with it. When he takes them away, one’s conceptions cease. When he brings them, one’s conceptions arise.’ These statements all have their defects. Why is that? Wanderer, there are causes and conditions for conceptions to arise, and there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease.

13. “Suppose a Tathāgata arises in the world, an Arhat and Completely Awakened One who possesses the ten epithets. Someone leaves home for the path in the Buddha’s Dharma … ceases the five hindrances that obscure their mind. They abandon desires and bad and unskillful things. With perception and examination, that seclusion gives rise to joy and happiness, and they enter the first dhyāna.

14. “Their prior notions of desire cease, and notions of joy and happiness arise. Wanderer, we know because of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to arise, and cause and condition for conceptions to cease.

15. “That person ceases having perception or examination. They have an inner joy and unified mind without perception or examination. That samādhi gives rise to joy and happiness, and they enter the second dhyāna.

16. “Wanderer, that conception of the first dhyāna ceases, and the conception of the second dhyāna arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

17. “Abandoning joy, they cultivate equanimity, focus their attention, and unify their mind. They perceive their own happiness to be that which the noble ones seek. Equanimous, mindful, and pure, they enter the third dhyāna.

18. “Wanderer, that conception of the second dhyāna ceases, and the conception of the third dhyāna arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

19. “They abandon pain and abandon pleasure. Their previous sorrow and joy having ceased, they’re equanimous, mindful, and pure, and they enter the fourth dhyāna.

20. “Wanderer, that conception of the third dhyāna ceases, and the conception of the fourth dhyāna arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

21. “They abandon all notions of form, cease [notions of] anger, don’t attend to other notions, and they enter the abode of space.

22. “Wanderer, all those notions of form cease, and the conception of the abode of space arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

23. “They go entirely beyond the abode of space and enter the abode of consciousness.

24. “Wanderer, that conception of the abode of space ceases, and the conception of the abode of consciousness arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

25. “They go entirely beyond the abode of consciousness and enter the abode of nothingness.

26. “Wanderer, that conception of the abode of consciousness ceases, and the conception of the abode of nothingness arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

27. “They abandon the abode of nothingness and enter the abode with and without conception.

28. “Wanderer, their conception of the abode of consciousness ceases, and the conception of the abode with and without conception arises. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

29. “They abandon the abode with and without conception and enter the conception that knows the attainment of cessation.

30. “Wanderer, their conception of the abode with and without conception ceases, and they enter the conception that knows the attainment of cessation. We know as a result of this that there are causes and conditions for conceptions to cease and causes and conditions for conceptions to arise.

31. “After they attain this conception, they think, ‘Having thoughts is bad, and having no thoughts is good.’ When they think that, there’s a subtle conception that doesn’t cease, and then a cruder conception arises. They again think, ‘Now, I’d rather not have any thought activity, for thinking to stop.’

32. “Once they don’t have any thought activity and stop thinking, that subtle conception ceases, and the cruder conception doesn’t arise. When they don’t have thought activity, thinking stops, that subtle conception ceases, and the cruder conception doesn’t arise, they then enter the conception that knows the attainment of cessation.

33. “How is it, wanderer? Up until now, have you ever heard the causes and conditions for this sequence of ceasing conceptions?”

34. The wanderer said to the Buddha, “Up until now, I don’t believe I’ve heard the causes and conditions for such a sequence of ceasing conceptions.”

35. He also said to the Buddha, “Now, I have this thought: ‘Here, there’s a conception, then no conception, and perhaps there’s a conception again. A person thinks, “Having thoughts is bad, and having no thoughts is good.” When they think that, a subtle conception doesn’t cease, and a cruder conception arises.

36. “‘Again, they think, “Now, I’d better not have any thought activity and stop thinking.’ Once they don’t have any thought activity and stop thinking, that subtle conception ceases, and the cruder conception doesn’t arise. When they don’t have thought activity, stop thinking, the subtle conception ceases, and the cruder conception doesn’t arise, they then enter conception that knows the attainment of cessation.”

37. The Buddha told the wanderer, “Good, good! This is the sequence of ceasing conceptions in the noble teaching.”

38. The wanderer again said to the Buddha, “Among these conceptions, which of them is the unsurpassed conception?”

The Buddha told the wanderer, “The conception of the abode of nothingness is unsurpassed.”

39. The wanderer also said to the Buddha, “Among conceptions, which is the supremely unsurpassed conception?”

The Buddha said, “The conception that knows the attainment of cessation, which is attained in a sequence from ‘having conception’ to ‘having no conception,’ is the supremely unsurpassed conception.”

40. The wanderer again asked, “Is it a single conception or many conceptions?”

The Buddha said, “It’s a single conception; it isn’t many conceptions.”

41. The wanderer again asked, “Does the conception arise first and the knowledge afterward, does the knowledge arise first and the conception afterward, or do both the conception and the knowledge arise at the same time?”

The Buddha said, “The conception arises first and the knowledge afterward. That knowledge comes from the conception.”

42. The wanderer again asked, “Is that conception the self?”

43. The Buddha told the wanderer, “What type of person is the self in your teaching?”

The wanderer said to the Buddha, “I don’t claim that a person is the self. My claim is about the form body of four elements and six senses that’s born, nurtured by parents, drinks milk until it’s grown, wears clothes and ornaments, and that’s an impermanent, eroding thing. I say this person is the self.”

44. The Buddha told the wanderer, “You say, ‘It’s the form body of four elements and six senses that’s born, nurtured by parents, drinks milk until it’s grown, wears clothes and ornaments, and that’s an impermanent, eroding thing. I say this person is the self.’ Wanderer, setting aside this self, this is just a concept of a person that arises and a concept of a person that ceases.”

The wanderer said, “Then I don’t say that that person is the self. I say that the gods of the desire realm are the self.”

45. The Buddha said, “Setting aside the gods of the desire realm as self, this is just a concept of a person that arises and a concept of a person that ceases.”

The wanderer said, “Then I don’t say that that person is the self. I say that the gods of the form realm are the self.”

46. The Buddha said, “Setting aside the gods of the form realm as the self, this is just a concept of a person that arises, and a concept of a person that ceases.”

The wanderer said, “Then I don’t say that that person is the self. I say that the gods of abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception of the formless realm are the self.”

47. The Buddha said, “Setting aside the gods of the abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception of the formless realm as the self, this is just a concept of a person that arises and a concept of a person that ceases.”

The wanderer said to the Buddha, “How is it, Gautama? How can I know the concept of a person that arises and the concept of a person that ceases?”

48. The Buddha told the wanderer, “You want to know the concept of a person that arises and the concept of a person that ceases? It’s very difficult! Very difficult! Why is that? You have a different view, different training, different tolerance, different experience, and rely on a different teaching.”

49. The wanderer said to the Buddha, “So it is, Gautama. I have a different view, different training, different tolerance, different experience, and rely on a different teaching, so my desire to know the concept of a person that arises and the concept of a person that ceases is very difficult. Very difficult. Why is that?

50. “‘Self and the world are permanent. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and the world are impermanent. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and the world are permanent and impermanent. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and the world are neither permanent nor impermanent. This is true; anything else is false.’

51. “‘Self and the world have limits. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and the world are limitless. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and world have limits and are limitless. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘Self and the world are neither limited nor limitless. This is true; anything else is false.’

52. “‘The soul is the body. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘The soul is one thing, and the body is another. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘The body and soul are neither different nor not different. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘There’s no soul and no body. This is true; anything else is false.’

53. “‘The Tathāgata dies. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘The Tathāgata doesn’t die. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘The Tathāgata dies and doesn’t die. This is true; anything else is false.’ ‘The Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die. This is true; anything else is false.’”

54. The Buddha told the wanderer, “I don’t explain these views: ‘The [self and the] world are permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die.’”

55. The wanderer said to the Buddha, “Gautama, why don’t you explain the views: ‘Self and the world are permanent … The Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die’? You don’t explain any of them?”

The Buddha said, “These views aren’t compatible with meaning or with the teaching, nor with the religious life, dispassion, the unconditioned, cessation, calming, right awakening, the ascetic, or Nirvāṇa. That’s why I don’t explain them.”

56. The wanderer again asked, “What is compatible with meaning and the teaching? What is the beginning of the religious life? What is the unconditioned? What is dispassion? What is cessation? What is calming? What is right awakening? What is the ascetic? What is Nirvāṇa? What do you call explanation?”

The Buddha told the wanderer, “I explain the truth of suffering … formation of suffering … cessation of suffering … the truth of the escape from suffering. Why is that? They are compatible with meaning and with the teaching, and they are the leaders of the religious life, dispassion, the unconditioned, cessation, calming, right awakening, the ascetic, and Nirvāṇa. This is why I explain them.”

57. The Bhagavān then taught the Dharma for the wanderer. After he was encouraged by its plain instruction, the Buddha rose from his seat and left.

58. Not long after the Buddha departed, some other wanderers said to the wanderer [Poṭṭhapāda], “Why were you listening to the teaching of that ascetic Gautama and approving of what he said? Gautama says, ‘“Self and the world is permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die” are incompatible with meaning … so I don’t explain them.’ Why did you approve of those words? We cannot have such discussions with the ascetic Gautama.”

59. [Poṭṭhapāda] replied to the wanderers, “The ascetic Gautama taught, ‘“Self and the world are permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die” aren’t compatible with the meaning … so I don’t explain them.’ I don’t approve of his words, either. It’s just that the ascetic Gautama lives relying on a teaching, so he speaks using that teaching. The escape uses this teaching, so why would I contradict his wise statement? A subtle Dharma statement like the ascetic Gautama’s can’t be contradicted.”

60. At a different time, the wanderer [Poṭṭhapāda] visited the Bhagavān with Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra.[3] After exchanging greetings, he sat to one side. Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra bowed to the Buddha and sat, too.

61. The wanderer said to the Buddha, “When the Buddha paid us a visit before, the other wanderers said to me not long after you departed, ‘Why were you listening to what the ascetic Gautama teaches and approving of what he said? Gautama says, “‘Self and the world are permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die’ aren’t compatible with meaning … so I don’t explain them.” Why did you approve of those words? We cannot have such discussions with the ascetic Gautama.’

62. “I replied to them, ‘The ascetic Gautama does teach, “‘Self and the world are permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die’ aren’t compatible with the meaning … so I don’t explain them.’ I don’t approve of what he said, either. It’s just that the ascetic Gautama lives relying on a teaching, so he explains that teaching, and the escape uses this teaching, so why would I contradict his wise statement? A subtle Dharma statement like the ascetic Gautama’s can’t be contradicted.’”

63. The Buddha told the wanderer, “The wanderers asked, ‘Why were you listening to what the ascetic Gautama teaches and approving of what he said?’ It’s a mistake that they ask that. Why is that? The Dharma that I teach has a certain explanation and an uncertain explanation.

64. “What’s called the uncertain explanation? ‘Self and the world are permanent … the Tathāgata neither dies nor doesn’t die.’ I say these statements don’t have certain explanations. What’s the reason for this? They aren’t compatible with meaning or the teaching, nor with the beginning of the religious life, dispassion, the unconditioned, cessation, calming, right awakening, the ascetic, or Nirvāṇa. Why, wanderer, would I discuss these statements even though they don’t have certain explanations?

65. “What’s called the certain explanation? I explain the truth of suffering … formation of suffering … cessation of suffering … truth of the escape from suffering. Why is that? These things are compatible with the teaching and meaning. They are leaders of the religious life, dispassion, the unconditioned, cessation, calming, right awakening, the ascetic, and Nirvāṇa, so I teach these certain explanations.

66. “Wanderer, perhaps an ascetic or priest claims that there’s one abode of the world that’s the only way to happiness. I would say to him, ‘You truly say that there’s one abode in the world that’s the only way to happiness?’

“He replies to me, ‘Yes.’

67. “I again ask him, ‘Do you know and see this one abode in the world that’s the only way to happiness?’

“He answers me, ‘I don’t know or see it.’

68. “I again ask him, ‘Are the heavens that one abode in the world that’s the only way to happiness, which you’ve never seen?’

“He replies to me, ‘I don’t know or see it.’

69. “I again ask him, ‘Have you ever shared a seat, had a conversation, made effort, or cultivated samādhi with the gods of that one abode in the world?’

“He replies to me, ‘No.’

70. “I again ask him, ‘Do the gods of that one abode in the world that’s the only way to happiness come to tell you, “If you practice honestly, you’ll be born in the only way to heavenly happiness, for I practiced honestly and attained birth where they share that happiness’?”

“He answers me, ‘No.’

71. “I again ask him, ‘Are you able to produce a mind yourself that transforms into another body of the four elements, a body complete with flawless faculties?’

“He answers me, ‘I’m not able to do that.’

72. “How is it, wanderer? Would what that ascetic or priest say be honest? Would it be the Dharma?”

The wanderer said to the Buddha, “This is not honest, nor is it an expression of Dharma.”

73. The Buddha told the wanderer, “What if there’s someone who says, ‘I’ll have a relationship with a beautiful woman!’ He praises attractive women.

74. “Another person asks, ‘Do you know that woman? Where is she? To the east, west, south, or north?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

75. “Again, he’s asked, ‘Do you know which country, city, or town where she lives?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

76. “Again, he’s asked, ‘Do you know her parents or what her family name is?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

77. “Again, he’s asked, ‘Do you know if that woman is a warrior woman or a priest, householder, or worker woman?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

78. “Again, he’s asked, ‘Do you know if that woman is tall or short, crude or fine, dark or light, or beautiful or ugly?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

79. “How is it, wanderer? Would this person be speaking honestly?”

The wanderer answered, “No.”

80. “Wanderer, that ascetic or priest would be likewise. He isn’t being honest. Wanderer, it would be like someone who builds a ladder on empty ground. Someone else asks him, ‘What’s the purpose of building a ladder here?’

“He answers, ‘I want to ascend to the meeting hall.’

81. “Again, he’s asked, ‘Where’s this meeting hall?’

“He answers, ‘I don’t know.’

82. “How is it, wanderer? Wouldn’t building that ladder be based on a deception?”

The wanderer answered, “Yes, it’s based on a deception.”

83. The Buddha said, “Those ascetics and priests are likewise. They are deceptive and not honest.”

84. The Buddha addressed [Poṭṭhapāda], “You say that self is the body of four elements and six senses that’s born, nurtured by parents, drinks milk until it’s grown, wears clothes and ornaments, and which is an impermanent, eroding thing. You say this is the self, but I ask, ‘Is this defilement or purity, and does it attain freedom?’

85. “You might think that defilement cannot cease, that purity cannot arise, and that suffering is eternal, but don’t think that. Why is that? The cessation of defilement is possible, and the production of purity is possible. Dwelling in a place of well-being is joyful and delightful. By focusing attention and unifying one’s mind, wisdom increases and broadens.

86. “Wanderer, I say that the gods of the desire realm … form realm … abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … the abode with and without conception are defiled. I also say they are pure, and they attain freedom.

87. “You might think that defilement cannot cease, that purity cannot arise, and that suffering is eternal, but don’t think that. Why is that? The cessation of defilement is possible, and the production of purity is possible. Dwelling in a place of well-being is joyful and delightful. By focusing attention and unifying one’s mind, wisdom increases and broadens.

88. Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra then said, “Bhagavān, shouldn’t it be that when there’s the desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, there’s also at the same time the body of the desire realm gods … form realm gods … abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … the abode with and without conception gods?

89. “Bhagavān, shouldn’t it be that when there’s the body of the desire realm gods, there’s also at the same time the desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, body of the form realm gods, body of the abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception gods?

90. “Bhagavān, shouldn’t it be that when there’s the body of the form realm gods, there’s also at the same time the desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, the body of the desire realm gods, body of the abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception gods?

91. “… when there’s the body of the gods of the abode with and without conception, there’s also at the same time the desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, body of the desire realm gods, body of the form realm gods … abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception?”

92. The Buddha told Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra, “If there’s a person’s body of the desire realm of four elements and faculties, then it would correct that there’s a person’s body of the desire realm of four elements and faculties but not the god body of the desire realm … form realm … abode of space … abode of consciousness … abode of nothingness … abode with and without conception… when there’s a god body of the abode with and without conception, then it would be correct that there’s a god body of the abode with and without conception but no human body of four elements and faculties of the desire realm or a god body of the desire realm, god body of the form realm … abode of space … abode of consciousness … the abode of nothingness.

93. “Hastikaśīrṣa, it’s like cow’s milk. Milk changes into cream, cream gives rise to raw butter, raw butter becomes refined butter, refined butter becomes ghee, and ghee is supreme. Hastikaśīrṣa, it should be that when there’s milk, it’s only called milk and not called cream, butter, and ghee. Thus, when it turns into ghee, it’s only called ghee and not called milk, cream, and butter.

94. “Hastikaśīrṣa, this is likewise. If there’s the desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, there wouldn’t be the body of the desire realm gods … form realm gods … abode with and without conception gods. Thus, they turn into each other. When the body of the abode with and without conception gods is possessed, then only that body of the abode with and without conception gods is possessed. There’s no desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, nor is there body of the desire realm gods … the form realm gods … abode of nothingness gods.

95. “Hastikaśīrṣa, what do you think? If someone asked you, ‘If when you had a body in the past, did you possess a future and present body at the same time? When you’ll possess a body in the future, will you possess a past and present body at the same time? When you possess a body in the present, do you possess a past and future body at the same time?’ Supposing these questions were put to you, what would your reply be?”

96. Hastikaśīrṣa said, “Supposing that such questions were put to me, I would reply, ‘When I possessed a body in the past, there was only that past body and none in the future or present. When I will possess a body in the future, there will only be that future body and none in the past or present. When I possess a body in the present, there’s just this present body and none in the past or future.’”

97. “Hastikaśīrṣa, this is likewise. When a desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties is possessed, there’s no body of the desire realm gods, form realm gods … abode with and without conception gods. Thus, in their turn … when the body of the abode with and without conception gods is possessed, there’s no desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties, body of the desire realm gods, form realm gods … abode of nothingness gods.

98. “Furthermore, Hastikaśīrṣa, suppose someone asked you, ‘Did your existence in the past cease? Will your existence in the future arise? Do you now exist in the present?’ Supposing someone puts these questions to you, what will be your answer?”

99. Hastikaśīrṣa said to the Buddha, “If someone asked that, I would answer, ‘My existence in the past did cease; that did happen. My existence in the future will arise; it will happen. I exist in the present; it’s happening.’”

100. The Buddha said, “Hastikaśīrṣa, this is likewise. When a desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties is possessed, there’s no body of the desire realm gods, form realm gods … abode with and without conception gods. Thus it is, in turn … when the body of the abode with and without conception gods is possessed, there’s no desire realm person’s body of four elements and faculties … desire realm gods … form realm gods … abode of nothingness gods.”

101. Hastikaśīrṣa then said to the Buddha, “Bhagavān, I now take refuge in the Buddha, refuge in the Dharma, and refuge in the Saṅgha. Permit me to be a layman in the correct teaching! From now on, I won’t kill, steal, commit adultery, lie, or drink alcohol for the rest of my life.”

102. The wanderer [Poṭṭhapāda] then said to the Buddha, “May I be given the precepts of a renunciate in the Buddha’s Dharma?”

The Buddha told the wanderer, “If someone of a different training wants to leave home for the path in my Dharma, they’re first observed for four months, and then the assembly gives their assent. After that, they are given the precepts and leave home. While there’s this rule, the person is just observed.”

103. The wanderer said to the Buddha, “Those of a different training who want to leave home for the path in the Buddha’s Dharma, they’re first observed for four months, and then the assembly gives their assent. After that, they are given the precepts and leave home. Now, I would be willing to be observed for four years before the assembly assented. After that, I would look forward to receiving the precepts and leaving home.”

104. The Buddha told the wanderer, “As I said, while there’s this rule, the person is just observed.”

105. That wanderer then received the precepts and left home. It wasn’t long after than his faith became firm, and he purified cultivation of the religious life. In the present life, he realized for himself, ‘Birth and death have been ended, the task has been accomplished, and the religious life has been established. I won’t be subject to a later life.’ He then became an arhat.

106. When [Poṭṭhapāda] heard what the Buddha taught, he rejoiced and approved.

Notes

  1. The direct parallel for this sutra is DN 9. [back]
  2. [Poṭṭhapāda]. Ch. 布吒婆樓, MCh. po-ṭă-bua-ləu = *Potava(r/l)u. P. Poṭṭhapāda. Lacking a Sanskrit attestation, I’ve substituted the Pali equivalent.
  3. Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra. Ch. 象首舍利弗. P. Hatthisāriputta. The Chinese translates the first part of his name as “elephant chief (or head),” which would match Skt. Hastikaśīrṣa, and then adds the common transliteration of Śāriputra. I’ve combined the two to arrive at Skt. Hastikaśīrṣa Śāriputra.

Translator: Charles Patton

Last Revised: 9 June 2022